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palisade there was an exterior gate, corresponding to the interior gate 
of the court. Every place was closed at nightfall. 

" The number of men, women and children, all more or less related 
to Joel, who assisted him in farming, was considerable. They lived 
in buildings dependent on the principal house, where they assembled 
at noon and evening, to take their meals in common. 

" Other habitations thus constructed, and occupied by numerous in- 
habitants, whom their lands maintained, were dispersed here and 
there throughout the country, and composed the lignez, or tribe of 
Karnak, of which Joel had been elected chief." 

Many amusing anecdotes are related of the manners and customs 
of the Gauls, none of which, however, rest on the statements of 
contemporar)' history. The only conclusion at which we can arrive 
is that they were a set of wretched savages ; and we think that the 
conquests which extirpated the Gaul to introduce the Frank, like 
those which destroyed the Briton to make room for the Saxon, were 
of the greatest benefit to humanity. The philosophy of Charles 
Darwin is most sound on this point. That the extirpation of the 
lower race should be the immediate cause of "the most exalted 
object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the produc- 
tion of the higher animals,"* is a sound biological generalization. 
The historical event, that the autochthonous Gaulish race has been 
nearly " improved off" the face of the earth, we consider to have 
been conducive to the well-being of Western Europe. Now that 
such ideas as these are no longer confined to anthropologists, but are 
uttered by the politician, we have no doubt that such amusing and 
instructive works as that of M. Sue will be diligently perused, so long 
as they faithfully depict the struggles of a nation to attain an imprac- 
ticable liberty, or the futile efforts of a doomed race to maintain its 
position in the ethnic scale. 


Professor Ramsay's lectures, amongst the geologists for which 
they were destined, will inevitably receive the support they so emi- 
nently deserve. We believe that the whole work, and especially the 

* Darwin, Origin of Species, 1st edition, p. 489. 

+ The Physical Geology and Geography of Great Britain; a Course of Six 
Lectures delivered to Working Men in the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn 
Street. By Professor A. C. Ramsay, F.E.S., President of the Geologicul Society. 
8vo. London: Stanford. 1863. 


second lecture, which treats of metamorphism and contortions of 
strata, may be indicated as a model series of elementary lectures, in 
which the author has adhered to the strict paths of logical science, 
while, by a charm of language, a lucidity of style, and a prudent 
abnegation of all unproven and unproveable hypotheses, Professor 
Ramsay has added new laurels to his geological fame. Scientific 
men will sooner or later learn that the " rapid and right " progress 
of truth is best advanced, not by the proposition of chimerical hypo- 
theses, or vague speculations, but by the diffusion of accurate and 
positive facts, inductively ascertained, amongst the thinking world. 
However tempting it may be to discuss Professor Ramsay's geological 
facts, we must pass them over in the attempt to answer the broad ques- 
tion, " What is the bearing of this work on anthropological science ?" 
After Professor Ramsay has discussed, in his sixth lecture, the 
more striking effects of the physical geology of the country on porjula- 
tion and industry, the following passage occurs : — 

" I would now wish to say a few words on the influence of geology 
upon the inhabitants of different parts of our island. 

" Great Britain is inhabited by two or three great races, more or 
less intermingled with one another. It requires but a cursory exam- 
ination to see that the barren districts, as a whole, are inhabited by 
two branches of one race, distinct from each other, and yet alike, 
while the more fertile parts are occupied by one or two other races. 
Thus the north of Scotland, beyond the great valley, is, as every one 
knows, chiefly inhabited by the Celtic Highlanders. On the east, 
along the coasts of the Moray Forth, Caithness, and in the Orkney 
and Shetland Islands, the people are of Scandinavian origin and 
speak Scotch, thus standing out in marked contrast from the Gaelic 
clans, who possess the wilder and higher grounds in the interior and 
western districts. There is here a curious relation of the human 
population to the geological character of the country. The Scan- 
dinavian element is strongly developed along the maritime tracts, 
which, being chiefly composed of Old Red Sandstone, stretch away in 
long and fertile lowlands, while the Celts are pretty closely restricted 
to the higher and bleaker tracts where the barren gneissic and 
schistose rocks prevail. 

" From an early period it appears that on both sides of the Channel, 
the Continent of Europe, and what is now Great Britain, were in- 
habited by a Celtic population, known to us in our history by the 
name of the Cimri, whom we call Welsh, or the ancient Britons. 
Further north another Celtic people, whom we know as the Gaels, 
inhabited the greater part of what is now termed Scotland, and, I 
believe, the whole of Ireland. Which of these two Celtic races is 
most ancient in our islands we seem unable clearly to make out ; 
there are a great many theories on the subject, but I do not think it 
has been proved to demonstration that one of them is later than the 


other. It is not improbable, however, that the Highlanders, who 
are now largely intermixed with a deal of Scandinavian blood, once 
spread further south than what is considered the southern borders of 
the Highlands, and were forced to retire northwards into their 
mountains, through the superior power of another Celtic population 
that worked its way northwards from the more fertile districts of 
England and south of Scotland, for no race would willingly inhabit 
an area composed of barren mountains if it could take up a position 
on more fertile lands. A great number of the names of places in the 
centre and south of Scotland are not Gaelic, but names that can be 
translated by any one who has even a comparatively superficial 
knowledge of Welsh, such as I happen to possess. It is therefore 
probable that the southern and midland parts were inhabited in old 
times by the same race of people that now inhabit the extreme west 
of England, or Wales. And to a certain extent this is proved by the 
ancient British literature. I use the word British as applied to 
Welsh literature. But however this may be, it is certain that the 
Britons or the Welsh tribe of Celts overspread at one time (when the 
Romans invaded our country) the whole of the southern part of 
Great Britain ; by and bye, after the Roman invasion, they mixed 
with their conquerors, but the Romans, as far as blood is concerned, 
seemed to have played but a very unimportant part in our country. 
They may have intermarried to some extent with the natives, but they 
occupied our country very much in the manner that we now occupy 
India. Corning here as military colonists, they went away again as 
soon as their time of service was up and left the country altogether. 
But after the retirement of the Romans, invasions took place by the 
Danes, the Scandinavian tribes, the Anglo-Saxons and others who 
came in to occupy the country permanently. Then the native tribes, 
dispossessed of their territories and driven westwards, retreated into 
the interior and higher parts of the country. Their remains are still 
extant in Devon and Cornwall, where there is a tolerably pure Celtic 
race, and among the Welsh mountains where the same Celtic ele- 
ment is still to a great extent free from admixture. They were driven 
back into the mountainous regions, whither it was not worth the 
while of their pursuers to follow them, in order to dispossess them of 
those barren tracts. Thus it happens that the oldest tribes now 
inhabiting our country are to be found among the old palaeozoic 
mountains, which, composed of the most ancient of our geological 
formations, and rising up into the highest grounds, must have been 
the first parts of the British islands to rise above the waters, during 
the last elevation of the land." 

The coincidence between the geological formation and the ethnic 
differences is at least remarkable. There was, however, a time when 
the Keltic races stretched over the mesozoic and cainozoic formations 
of Eastern England, when the present ethnic outliers of the Hebrides, 
Western Scotland, Man, Wales, and Cornwall, were all connected 
into one kindred population speaking a Keltic language. " Denuda- 


tion " and " erosive action " have, however, rendered them a scattered 
people, while the mesozoic and cainozoic formations are filled with 
the modified and mixed descendants of the Jute and the Saxon. 

We hope that at some future time Professor ltamsay may work out 
the problems contained in his sixth chapter more in detail. He con- 
cludes in the following words : — 

" When we come to consider the nature of the population inhabit- 
ing our island, we find it also to be greatly influenced by this old 
geology. The aboriginal tribes have been driven into the more barren 
mountain regions in the north and west, and so remain to this day — 
speaking to a great extent their aboriginal languages, but gradually 
melting up with the great mass of mixed races that came in with 
later waves of conquest from other parts of Europe. These later 
races settling down in the more fertile parts of the country, began to 
develop its agricultural resources. In later times they have applied 
themselves with wonderful energy to turn to use the vast stores of 
mineral wealth which lie in the central districts. Hence have arisen 
those densely peopled towns and villages where the manufactures of 
the country are carried on. Yet in the west, too — in Devon, and 
Cornwall, and in Wales, where the great slate regions are — there 
are busy centres of population, where the mineral products are 
worked by the aboriginal inhabitants of Celtic origin. 

"It is interesting to go back a little and inquire what may have 
been the condition of our country when man first set foot upon its 
surface. We know that these islands of ours have been frequently 
united to the continent, and as frequently disunited, partly by eleva- 
tions and depressions of the land, and to a great extent, also, by 
denudations. When the earliest human population reached their 
plains, they were probably united to the continent. Such is the 
deliberate opinion of some of our best geologists. They do not assert 
it as a positive fact, but they consider it probable that these old pre- 
historic men inhabited our country along with the great hairy main- 
moth, the rhinoceros, the cave bear, the lion, and the hippopotamus, 
— that they travelled westwards from the Continent of Europe, along 
with these extinct mammalia, over that continuation of the land which 
originally united Great Britain to the Continent. But in later times 
denudations and alterations of level have taken place, chiefly, I 
believe, great denudations of the chalk, and of the strata that cover 
the chalk, and then our island has become disunited from the main- 
land. And now, with all its numerous inlets, its great extent of 
coast, its admirable harbours, our country lies within the direct influ- 
ence of the Gulf Stream, which influences the whole climate of the 
west of Europe, and we, a mixed race of people, Celt, Scandinavian, 
Saxon, Norman, more or less intermingled in blood, are so happily 
placed that, in a great measure, we have the command of the com- 
merce of Europe, and send out our fleets of merchandise from every 
port. We are happy, in my opinion, above all things in this, that by 
denudation we have been dissevered from the Continent of Europe, 


for thus it happens that, uninfluenced by the immediate contact of 
hostile countries, and almost unbiassed by the influence of peoples of 
foreign blood, during the long course of years in which our country 
has never seen the foot of an invader, we have been enabled so to 
develope our own ideas of right and wrong, of political freedom, and 
of political morality, that we now stand here, the freest country on 
the face of the globe, enjoying our privileges, under the strongest 
and freest Government in the living world." 


Much of the scope of the present work is theological, and the prin- 
ciples on which the Anthropological Review is conducted preclude 
the discussion of theological subjects. The Tractalus Theologico- 
Politicus, however, contains much valuable information respecting 
purely scientific topics which have, since Baruch Spinoza gave to the 
■world those profound works which will be for ever associated with 
his name, become even popular. As the learned and anonymous 
editor of the Tractatus observes : — 

" The Hindus preceded the Hebrews in civilization by hundreds, 
perhaps by thousands of years, and in their Vedas, which existed in 
writing centuries before the Jews became serfs to Egyptian task- 
masters, they have not only given us a clear insight into their religi- 
ous world, but have actually transmitted the record of this in the 
tongue which is the root of all the dialects spoken in Europe to the 
present day. It might have been that the Sanscrit Vedas had de- 
scended to us as our especial religious inheritance, when we should 
have had Brahm, Vichnou, and Siva as our triune divinity. The 
Zends, again, the religious books of the ancient Persians, are of great 
antiquity, and, as the Persians were nearer neighbours of the Jews 
than the Hindus, so do we find that they have influenced Jewish ideas 
in a much greater measure." 

Much credit is due to the editor, and especially to the publishers, 

who have produced this valuable work in a compendious form and at 

a cheap price. Many readers will gladly peruse it, if only to study 

the thoughts of an author whose terse and vigorous style has raised 

him for the last two hundred years to the position of the best-abused 

author in philosophy. We would very much like to see the Ethica of 

the same author published in the same manner as the present volume. 

* Tractatus Theologico-Politicus ; a Critical Inquiry into the History, Pur- 
pose, and Authenticity of the Hebrew Scriptures : with the right to free thought 
and free discussion asserted, and shewn to he not only consistent, hut necessarily 
bound up with true piety and good government. By Benedict de Spinoza. From 
the Latin ; with an Introduction and Notes by the Editor. 8vo. London : Triibner 
and Co. 1862.